Single Stream Recycling Equipment

Saturday, December 2, 2017

Anaerobic Digestion for Energy and Biofuel from Municipal Solid Waste

Globally refuse disposal is still one of the great growth industries of our time. The majority of what we buy and use, is destined for the dustcart, and in an ever shorter time and breaking all previous records for quantity as civilization becomes more affluent.

We purchase great quantities of goods which come with a relatively short lifespan and abundant quantities of packaging material. In times gone by many of us composted our putrescible waste in our gardens ad vegetable plots.

Gardens are getting smaller, we grow fewer food crops, and there is little room left for the compost heap and the garden bonfire is often banned due to clean-air regulations.

Dustbins are getting larger and refuse collection authorities are becoming more efficient and helpful in collecting ever larger quantities of household refuse and civic amenity wastes.

To reduce the sheer bulk of waste destined for our landfill sites, to extend their operating lives and to minimize the environmental and safety hazards of the materials delivered unto them, there is increasing public and legislative pressure to recycle and reuse a greater proportion of the discarded possessions we call "municipal solid waste" ("MSW").

There is also a growing demand for energy and for that energy to be "green" and not from a fossil fuel based source which contributes to the greenhouse gas effect and climate change. There are lots of ways that waste, with its locked-in energy, can be used as a fuel source, but one of the very best, if not the best is a process called Anaerobic Digestion.

The scope for anaerobic digestion of MSW "putrescibles" becomes apparent when one examines the composition of household refuse and the limitations of existing recycling schemes. The big advantage possessed by anaerobic digestion is that using it to produce "biogas" can not only provide a fuel for ordinary diesel generators, but also can be converted into biofuel which can be used in the automotive industry. This can potentially provide us with green fuel in the place of fossil fuels which are saved.
Anaerobic Digestion is still a technology which needs a lot of improving and developing though. There are quite a few problems in using it reliably for the fermentation of wastes, despite the fact that Anaerobic Digestion has been used for sludge digestion at sewage works for at least 50 years.

The problems become apparent when one examines the cost and complexity of the anaerobic digestion equipment and the need to find appropriate outlets for the "refined digestate" liquid it produces.

The incentives derive from consideration of the alternatives:

  • The other alternatives, including refuse-sorting and incineration, refuse-derived fuels and refuse-reclaimed materials do not seem likely to offer an obvious straight forward quick-fix solution.
  • Landfilling is generally considered to be cheap and effective, if it's available, if it's acceptable in the locality, and it will always be required as the ultimate resting place for a small proportion of our refuse.
  • But landfill sites do fill up and the problem always remains of finding appropriate new sites..

To summarise this we would say that:

  • Household waste is inherently putrescible (compostible), and provides a natural material for decomposition by methane bacteria.
  • It will ferment naturally, in a landfill, which even when lined and capped is at comparatively little cost.
  • But, landfills do bring with them considerable environmental and safety hazards. They require extensive gas abstraction and leachate control systems to protect neighbouring crops, neighbouring properties and underground water supplies. Even then possibly 30% to 50% of the methane produced leaks out and can't be collected..
  • Household waste will also ferment rapidly in anaerobic digestion plants to provide a convenient source of biogas as fuel and a stabilised "digestate" for landfilling, or refining into useful soil conditioners and soil substitutes for agriculture, forestry or land reclamation. .
  • It will capture almost 100% of the methane produced, and this methane can also be processed into a automotive biofuel. It is carbon negative (helps reduce carbon emissions) and "green".
  • Anaerobic Digestion technology may not be as reliable as other processes and the cost is high at present, but further investment in research into the processes will almost certainly be able to improve reliability very rapidly.>

Shouldn't you consider Anaerobic Digestion for your waste processing solution?.

Steve Evans is an waste management engineer and a regular contributor of resourve management and dog breed related articles.

Recycling Equipment

Saturday, October 21, 2017

Different Types Of Cardboard Boxes

By Shane McConnell

There is much more to a cardboard box than one might realize. These prefabricated boxes come in many types and within industry, they are not referred to using the term "cardboard" because that does not denote their material composition. Cardboard is used to refer to different paper-type materials like corrugated fiberboard, paperboard, recycled, and card stock. Getting a brief education on box materials allows consumers to know exactly what they are using.

Corrugated fiberboard consists of one or two flat linerboards encasing a fluted corrugated sheet. This paper-based material is used to manufacture shipping containers and corrugated boxes. The linerboard and corrugated sheet are made from containerboard, which is a paper-like material measuring more than 0.01 inches thick. Corrugated boxes originated in the mid-19th century and were initially used to package pottery and glass containers.

Paperboard is usually 0.01 inch thicker than paper. ISO standards designate paperboard as paper with more than a 224 g/m basis weight, with exceptions. Paperboard can be single ply or multi-ply and is lightweight and easy to form and cut. Since it is strong, it is useful as packaging material. The first carton made from paperboard was produced in England in 1817. By the 1860s, folding cartons were available and by 1974, ovenable paperboard had been discovered.

Recycled cardboard boxes are created from cardboard packaging waste from residential households and companies dealing in packaged goods. Wood pulp manufacturers often deal directly in recycled cardboard materials, repurposing them into new cardboard boxes. The energy savings provided by recycling cardboard is estimated to be 24 percent. Prices of recyclable cardboard fell in 2008 and then increased in 2009. It is easier to recycle cardboard packaging from food products than plastic but shipping costs are higher and more waste may be created from spoilage.

Shipping boxes are usually made from either corrugated cardboard or paperboard. A set-up box is made from non-bending paperboard. Folding cartons are transported and stored flat, then put together when filled. Set-up boxes are assembled during manufacture and transported in their set-up state. These are more expensive than folding cartons and are often used as gift boxes or for high-ticket items.

The rectangle is the most common box shape and sizes vary from tiny to those that fit a large appliance. Durability depends on the type of material used to make the box, with some materials more suitable for packaging certain items. Before they purchasing cardboard shipping or storage boxes, consumers should research the actual material used to make the box.

If you are looking for more information on cardboard boxes, visit BestCardboardBoxes.com. This site features information on cardboard boxes [http://www.bestcardboardboxes.com/category/cardboard-boxes-2/] of all types and includes reviews for products such as moving boxes [http://www.bestcardboardboxes.com/category/moving-boxes/] and plastic storage boxes. Check it out today!

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Shane_McConnell/773662
http://EzineArticles.com/?Different-Types-Of-Cardboard-Boxes&id=6152841

Recycle Cardboard

Saturday, October 7, 2017

Why Recycle Cardboard?

By Chris Norriss

Generally there are two types of cardboard that are considered to be recyclable. The first is the ruffled kind used in packaging materials called corrugated cardboard. The other is called paperboard or flat cardboard and is the kind most of us are familiar with because it is used in everything from cereal boxes and frozen food containers to shipping boxes, shoe boxes and cylinders. Depending on the rules in your area, some lighter weight cardboard (paperboard) such as cereal and food product boxes can by sorted with your paper products. However, the thicker cardboard associated with storage and packing boxes needs to be unfolded and flattened before it can be recycled. That way it is easier and less expensive to transport to the recycling hubs because it takes up less volume when it is flat. Of course, it is important to keep your cardboard away from any damp or wet areas until it is picked up or taken to a bin. If your community does not provide cardboard recycling, you can take the flattened boxes to your local supermarket and ask them to put your stack with theirs to be recycled. Almost every grocery store or department store participates in a commercial cardboard recycling program. But most of them will not take the lighter weight cardboard or paperboard.

So why is it so important to recycle cardboard? Over 90% of all products shipped inside the United States are shipped in cardboard boxes. Now multiply that worldwide and that's a lot of cardboard to manufacture. Naturally, cardboard is made from pulp and pulp is made from trees. Since there are a limited number of trees on the earth to provide us with oxygen and shade, it makes sense to try to not use so many of them to make all of those boxes. Even more important, the actual process of making cardboard is an environmentally messy one utilizing chemicals known to deplete ozone. When recycled corrugated and flat cardboard is used, it eliminates a lot of extra plastic or Styrofoam packing materials that are not biodegradable and fill up the landfills. Finally, by reusing cardboard, the manufacturing emissions are reduced by half. That's reason enough, don't you agree?

Some cardboard is not recyclable. Milk cartons are one example because they are wax coated to prevent leakage. Any boxes that have leaked some of their contents or gotten repeatedly damp cannot be recycled. The reason is that the chemicals that can be released from stains or moisture can be damaging to breathe if they are stored in a compact space. Some boxes may be treated with laminates, making them not very recyclable. The best is to use your common sense and examine the heavy cardboard. If it is oily, stained, damp, slick or overly dyed, please do not try and recycle it.

For more information on recycling go to [http://www.recycleability.com/]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Chris_Norriss/299539
http://EzineArticles.com/?Why-Recycle-Cardboard?&id=2277155

Recycle Cardboard

Sunday, October 1, 2017

Why Recycle Cardboard?

By Chris Norriss

Generally there are two types of cardboard that are considered to be recyclable. The first is the ruffled kind used in packaging materials called corrugated cardboard. The other is called paperboard or flat cardboard and is the kind most of us are familiar with because it is used in everything from cereal boxes and frozen food containers to shipping boxes, shoe boxes and cylinders. Depending on the rules in your area, some lighter weight cardboard (paperboard) such as cereal and food product boxes can by sorted with your paper products. However, the thicker cardboard associated with storage and packing boxes needs to be unfolded and flattened before it can be recycled. That way it is easier and less expensive to transport to the recycling hubs because it takes up less volume when it is flat. Of course, it is important to keep your cardboard away from any damp or wet areas until it is picked up or taken to a bin. If your community does not provide cardboard recycling, you can take the flattened boxes to your local supermarket and ask them to put your stack with theirs to be recycled. Almost every grocery store or department store participates in a commercial cardboard recycling program. But most of them will not take the lighter weight cardboard or paperboard.

So why is it so important to recycle cardboard? Over 90% of all products shipped inside the United States are shipped in cardboard boxes. Now multiply that worldwide and that's a lot of cardboard to manufacture. Naturally, cardboard is made from pulp and pulp is made from trees. Since there are a limited number of trees on the earth to provide us with oxygen and shade, it makes sense to try to not use so many of them to make all of those boxes. Even more important, the actual process of making cardboard is an environmentally messy one utilizing chemicals known to deplete ozone. When recycled corrugated and flat cardboard is used, it eliminates a lot of extra plastic or Styrofoam packing materials that are not biodegradable and fill up the landfills. Finally, by reusing cardboard, the manufacturing emissions are reduced by half. That's reason enough, don't you agree?

Some cardboard is not recyclable. Milk cartons are one example because they are wax coated to prevent leakage. Any boxes that have leaked some of their contents or gotten repeatedly damp cannot be recycled. The reason is that the chemicals that can be released from stains or moisture can be damaging to breathe if they are stored in a compact space. Some boxes may be treated with laminates, making them not very recyclable. The best is to use your common sense and examine the heavy cardboard. If it is oily, stained, damp, slick or overly dyed, please do not try and recycle it.

For more information on recycling go to [http://www.recycleability.com/]

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Chris_Norriss/299539
http://EzineArticles.com/?Why-Recycle-Cardboard?&id=2277155

Sunday, May 21, 2017

Recycling Paper - How It Helps Our Eco-System

By Victoria M. Brown

Recycling paper is the process of taking waste paper, or paper that would otherwise be thrown out, and remaking it into new paper products. Paper that can be used to make recycled paper is broken down into three categories- mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. Mill broke paper is paper that becomes scrap during the manufacturing of paper and it is recycled right in the paper mill. Pre-consumer paper waste is papers that were discarded before consumer use. Post-consumer paper waste is papers that were discarded by the consumer after use. Paper that is used in recycling is called scrap paper.

What is the recycling process?

There are usually 8 steps in the process of recycling paper. The first is called pulping, which is adding water to the paper and using machines to separate the fibers. The second step is screening, where screens are used to remove contaminants that are larger than the fibers. Next is centrifugal cleaning during which the materials that are denser than fiber are released. Flotation or deinking then causes ink to collect on the surface of the paper. The fifth step is called kneading or dispersion. Here machines help remove any remaining contaminant particles. Nest washing helps remove any small particles by passing water through the fibers. If the paper is supposed to be white, it is now bleached. Finally, the recycled paper is clean and it is now made into a new paper product.

What types of paper can be recycled?

Each recycling plant accepts different kinds of paper for recycling. Some types of paper forms that are commonly accepted include:

o White and colored paper

o While and colored envelopes

o Booklets or manuals

o Fax or copy paper

o Greeting cards

o Post-it notes

o Soft covered books

o Manila folders

o Magazines

o Newspapers

o Collapsed cardboard boxes

Why recycle?

90% of paper is made from wood. Paper production uses about 43% of harvested wood. Recycling newspaper saves about 1 ton of wood and recycling print or copy paper saves about 2 tons of wood.

Energy consumption is also reduced by recycling. However, the exact energy savings is still being debated. The Energy Information Administration claims that when paper is made with recycled paper, there is a 40% reduction in energy use, but the Bureau of International Recycling says that there is a 64% reduction. Regardless of which estimate is correct, both numbers represent a significant energy savings.

In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has found that recycling paper causes 35% less water pollution and 74% less air pollution.

What are some of the resources saved per ton of paper recycled?

o 17 trees

o 350 pounds of limestone

o 60,000 gallons of water

o 9,000 pounds of steam

o 275 pounds of sulfur

o 225 kilowatt hours

o 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space

Recycling paper has substantial benefits on our eco-system and it is so easy to do! Many communities have a recycling pickup day just as they have garbage pickup days. Simply contact your local waste management center to find out how to begin recycling in your community!

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Submitted by Victoria at NewSunGraphics.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Victoria_M._Brown/155795
http://EzineArticles.com/?Recycling-Paper---How-It-Helps-Our-Eco-System&id=934411

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Innovative Waste Recycling For Businesses

By Jan Gamm

Waste recycling has become big business for those who have recognised the advantages of adopting waste recycling policies in their offices and factories.

So how can offices recycle waste? What can be recycled? The fact is that in offices, most of the waste can be recycled in one way or another. Waste paper should always be recycled, which means making inroads into the cleaning contractors' policies of emptying waste paper buckets. It also means putting a strict policy in place for employees to ensure that no plastic sandwich packaging is added to the waste paper bin and no waste food from lunch is put into the paper waste either.

Inkjet cartridges may be recycled and also it is a good idea to place a cell phone recycling policy at the front desk and a drop zone for those who wish to dispose of their old cell phones. Always buy reconditioned office equipment such as telephone handsets and cell phones; headsets; computer keyboards; paper products. The green policy should start with the CEO's office and work on down through management level, finally ending on the factory floor where production materials may be categorized and recycled accordingly.

When putting a recycling process in place, always consult a professional waste disposal and recycling expert who will advise on how to separate waste and especially on how to treat potentially dangerous waste such as batteries; oil; acids etc. Most dangerous wastes are controlled items which must be disposed of professionally.

For companies who dispose of waste responsibly, there are a number of rewards; good public relations being one of them. Local newspapers and specialist publications are always ready to include a free item on green issues. Government contracts are always prioritized for companies with an efficient eco friendly policy in place. And why not do something for the environment while you are busy earning profits? Why not let the environment earn you something in exchange by creating a market for your used raw materials? Recycling is both green and cash friendly.

Companies that have become entitled to include eco friendly credentials in their business profile benefit by improving their reputation within the community and being able to promote their brand as an environmentally sympathetic product. A green policy goes a long way to building new relationships with clients and can often be the deal breaker that provides the edge on the competition.

In the near future, it will become more and more difficult to function successfully without an established and efficient waste disposal and recycling process. Businesses that specialise in manufacturing from raw materials and have a substantial waste problem can restructure profitability by consulting a waste management expert for advice on how to turn around recyclable waste, making savings in both cash and space.

Making the environment a priority need not be without its advantages. Making the right decisions on waste and recycling in liaison with a professional waste disposal company can lead to substantial savings and better productivity.

The article on Innovative Waste Recycling for Businesses is part of Waste 1 Disposal Services Inc's continuing series of articles on waste disposal and recycling.

Waste 1 Disposal Services Inc [http://www.waste1.ca] is a portal dealing with community waste and responsible recycling methods

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jan_Gamm/103531
http://EzineArticles.com/?Innovative-Waste-Recycling-For-Businesses&id=2971587

Sunday, April 9, 2017

Innovative Waste Recycling For Businesses

By Jan Gamm

Waste recycling has become big business for those who have recognised the advantages of adopting waste recycling policies in their offices and factories.

So how can offices recycle waste? What can be recycled? The fact is that in offices, most of the waste can be recycled in one way or another. Waste paper should always be recycled, which means making inroads into the cleaning contractors' policies of emptying waste paper buckets. It also means putting a strict policy in place for employees to ensure that no plastic sandwich packaging is added to the waste paper bin and no waste food from lunch is put into the paper waste either.

Inkjet cartridges may be recycled and also it is a good idea to place a cell phone recycling policy at the front desk and a drop zone for those who wish to dispose of their old cell phones. Always buy reconditioned office equipment such as telephone handsets and cell phones; headsets; computer keyboards; paper products. The green policy should start with the CEO's office and work on down through management level, finally ending on the factory floor where production materials may be categorized and recycled accordingly.

When putting a recycling process in place, always consult a professional waste disposal and recycling expert who will advise on how to separate waste and especially on how to treat potentially dangerous waste such as batteries; oil; acids etc. Most dangerous wastes are controlled items which must be disposed of professionally.

For companies who dispose of waste responsibly, there are a number of rewards; good public relations being one of them. Local newspapers and specialist publications are always ready to include a free item on green issues. Government contracts are always prioritized for companies with an efficient eco friendly policy in place. And why not do something for the environment while you are busy earning profits? Why not let the environment earn you something in exchange by creating a market for your used raw materials? Recycling is both green and cash friendly.

Companies that have become entitled to include eco friendly credentials in their business profile benefit by improving their reputation within the community and being able to promote their brand as an environmentally sympathetic product. A green policy goes a long way to building new relationships with clients and can often be the deal breaker that provides the edge on the competition.

In the near future, it will become more and more difficult to function successfully without an established and efficient waste disposal and recycling process. Businesses that specialise in manufacturing from raw materials and have a substantial waste problem can restructure profitability by consulting a waste management expert for advice on how to turn around recyclable waste, making savings in both cash and space.

Making the environment a priority need not be without its advantages. Making the right decisions on waste and recycling in liaison with a professional waste disposal company can lead to substantial savings and better productivity.

The article on Innovative Waste Recycling for Businesses is part of Waste 1 Disposal Services Inc's continuing series of articles on waste disposal and recycling.

Waste 1 Disposal Services Inc [http://www.waste1.ca] is a portal dealing with community waste and responsible recycling methods

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jan_Gamm/103531
http://EzineArticles.com/?Innovative-Waste-Recycling-For-Businesses&id=2971587